Looking for a job as a penetration testing? Penetration testing Interview Questions for Experienced or Freshers, you are at right place.so candidates who are able to answer them correctly they have more chances of being successful.
Penetration testing is a method of testing, measuring and enhancing established security measures on information systems and support areas. Pen test, is an authorized simulated attack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system. The test is performed to identify both weaknesses (also referred to as vulnerabilities), including the potential for unauthorized parties to gain access to the system's features and data, as well as strengths, enabling a full risk assessment to be completed.
Today, the available options for penetration testing are highly specialized and numerous. Many systems include tools for a range of security testing of the operating system. One example among many is the Kali Linux, used in digital forensics and penetration testing. It contains eight standard security tools including Nmap, Aircrack-ng, Kismet, Wireshark, Metasploit Framework, Burp Suite and John the Ripper. That a single system would contain so many penetration testing tools demonstrates how much more sophisticated today’s technology has become and how many ways ingenious hackers are discovering to create mischief in shared computing environments, especially the Internet. Pentool is a similar penetration testing focused system.
It’s important to understand that it is very unlikely that a pen-tester will find all the security issues. As an example, if a penetration test was done yesterday, the organization may pass the test. However, today is Microsoft’s “patch Tuesday” and now there’s a brand new vulnerability in some Exchange mail servers that were previously considered secure, and next month it will be something else. Maintaining secure network requires constant vigilance.
What is a penetration testing?
Penetration Testing (pen-testing or pentesting) is also known as a security assessment. Penetration testing is also commonly referred to as a pen test (or ethical hacking). Penetration testing in simple terms is a simulation of a process a hacker would use to launch an attack on a business network, attached devices, network applications, or a business website.  Pen-testing is implemented by simulating malicious attacks from an organization's internal and external users. The entire system is then analyzed for potential vulnerabilities. A plan that communicates test objectives, timetables and resources is developed prior to actual pen-testing.  Or a penetration test is a real-world attack performed by security experts on a company’s IT infrastructure to discover exploitable security flaws. This is different from a vulnerability assessment in that a vulnerability assessment is an inch deep and a mile wide whereas a penetration test is the opposite – a narrow focus, taking exploitation of the furthest extent possible.

What are the different types of Penetration Testing?
 In Penetration testing, there are different types of penetration testing’s:
  • Network Penetration Testing
  • Application Penetration Testing
  • Embedded System Penetration Testing (Hardware hacking)
  • Physical Penetration Testing
  • Red Team Engagements.
What are the different types of penetration testing methods?
There are different types of penetration testing methods:
External testing:  It targets a company's externally visible servers or DNS, E-mail servers, Web servers or firewalls.
Internal Testing: Inside attack behind the firewall by an authorized user with standard access privileges.
Blind Testing: In a blind test, a tester is only given the name of the enterprise that's being targeted. This gives security personnel a real-time look into how an actual application assault would take place.
Double blind testing:  In this testing security personnel have no prior knowledge of the simulated attack. Double-blind tests can be useful for testing an organization's security monitoring and incident identification as well as its response procedures.
Target Testing: Targeted testing or the lights-turned-on approach as it is often referred to, involves both the organization's IT team and the penetration testing team to carry out the test.

Do you do any scripting in Penetration testing?
A penetration tester knows how to write scripts that automate some of the testing. You can use almost any language to write scripts. Describe the script you wrote and the languages you used. Get ready for the interviewer to ask more details.

Who performs penetration tests?
Hire an independent third-party IT auditing expert, and have them work in partnership with your team. Look for Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) or GIAC Certifited Penetration Tester (GPEN) certification and ask which tools and methodologies they use. 

What is the workflow of a penetration test?
In advance of every penetration test, an individual meeting is held. In this meeting, the various possibilities of a penetration test in relation to the customer's systems are discussed. A penetration test only makes sense if it is realized in an individual and customer-oriented way.

What certifications needed in penetration testing?
Some certifications of Penetration tester
GIAC (Global Information Assurance Certification)
  • GCIH (GIAC Certified Incident Handler)
  • GSEC (GIAC Security Essentials)
  • GWAPT (GIAC Web Application Penetration Tester)
  • GPEN (GIAC Penetration Tester) or CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker)
  • GXPN (GIAC Exploit Researcher and Advanced Penetration Tester)
  • GPYC (GIAC Python Coder)
  • GMOB (GIAC Mobile Device Security Analyst)
  • GAWN (GIAC Assessing and Auditing Wireless Networks)
What types of systems have you performed penetration testing on?
 In testing the network layer like firewalls, email servers, web servers, FTP servers, etc. The application layer: all major development languages, all major web servers, all major operating systems, all major browsers.
Wireless systems: internal workstations, printers, fax machines, WAR dialing phone numbers, virtual environments including cloud, internet enabled devices, and more. We have tested law enforcement systems, state and municipal government systems, and private sector systems ranging from online gaming to financial institutions.

When do you need a penetration testing?
  • Notice viruses, malware, and spyware on workstations
  • After implementing significant any changes in website or network
  • Unauthorized traffic on your network noted
  • Security audit for HIPAA or PCI-DSS
  • After installing any new software or other upgrades
  • Prior to contracting and submission of application for breach insurance
  • You store any valuable data and have never had one
What are some ways to avoid brute force hacks?
You can stop authentication after a certain amount of attempts and lock the account. You can also block IP addresses that flood the network. You can use IP restrictions on the firewall or serve

What is pair testing?
Pair testing is a type of ad-hoc testing where pair of testers or tester and developer or tester & user is being formed which are responsible for carrying out the testing of the same software product on the same machine.
What is Omniquad Border Secure in pen testing?
Omniquad Border Secure is a service that performs network audits or network penetration testing — it identifies security vulnerabilities and weaknesses on networks. The information can be used to assess security, manage risks, and eliminate security vulnerabilities before third parties can take advantage of potential security holes on your network. Omniquad Border Secure is a service that can tell you how hackers can gain access to your networks, and help you prevent such a security breach.

How can you encrypt email messages in pet test?
 In pen test, you can use PGP to encrypt email messages or some other form of a public private key pair system where only the sender and the recipient can read the messages.

Why is penetration testing important to an organization’s risk management strategy?
Penetration testing should be an integral part of every organization’s risk management strategy because it can help determine whether existing security policies are effective, uncover unknown vulnerabilities and provide organizations an opportunity to remediate the identified vulnerabilities before a data breach occurs. Data breaches are not only very costly but also impact the reputation of an organization, so a controlled test that detects vulnerabilities an attacker could actually exploit is invaluable.

How do you add security to a website?
The HTTP protocol allows for security behind authenticated pages and directories. If the user does not enter the right username and password, the server returns a 403 authentication HTTP error. This protects from unauthorized users.

What kind of penetration can be done with the Diffie Hellman exchange?
A hacker can use the man in middle attack with the Diffie Hellman exchange since neither side of the exchange is authenticated. Users can use SSL or encryption between messages to add some kind of security and authentication.

What are the most common vulnerabilities found during a penetration test?
The most common vulnerabilities discovered during a penetration test are related to network configuration. Many of the default systems organizations use to communicate over their network actually allow malicious individuals to capture information as it travels through the network, leaving the organization vulnerable to a data breach. Another very common vulnerability originates from device and service configurations. For example, leaving the default configuration on a copy machine might not seem harmful, but it provides an attacker the ability to access documents scanned by the printer and other network information that is stored on the device itself.

Is network penetration testing the same as network vulnerability assessment?
There are many names for this type of security service. Network vulnerability assessment, network audit, network vulnerability scan, network penetration testing, they may all mean the same thing. BorderSecure is the name of Omniquads Network penetration service.

What is trace route? How does tracerout or tracert work?
Traceroute and tracert work to determine the route that goes from the host computer to a remote machine. It’s used to identify if packets are redirected, take too long, or the number of hops used to send traffic to a host.

What are the tools include in penetration testing?
  • Websites
  • Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) or prebuilt equipment and software applications
  • Proprietary enterprise applications (EA)
  • Potentially compromisable phone and wireless systems
  • Physical controls
  • Networking
Is network penetration testing safe?
Yes it is completely safe, skilled Omniquad engineers are probing your network from outside your organization/company. However, if there should be any glitches, it is better that it happens under a controlled sweep of your network since this in itself is exposing network vulnerabilities, some of which could indicate that your business would be defenseless to Denial of Service attacks

How often should an organization have a penetration test performed by a third-party?
It is considered best practice to have both an external and internal penetration test performed on an annual basis. New vulnerabilities are discovered regularly, so it is vital for organizations to stay ahead of evolving threats. In addition, organizations undergo various IT-related projects throughout the year, so any major configuration changes to the network should be thoroughly tested to guarantee they will not expose the organization to unnecessary risk.

Are there legal requirements for penetration testing?
It may not be mandatory to do a penetration test for corporations, but the German law for example includes numerous text passages in its commercial laws which could be validated by conducting a penetration test.

Why is it critical to have an on-going assessment of your networks’ security?
As new security issues and flaws with different products are made public on a daily basis, it is important to carry out regular checks in order to maintain a secure network. We check for holes in your Internet infrastructure, and the ideal way to stay secure on the Internet is to stay ahead of hackers, at all times.

What countries does redteam pentesting offer penetration tests?
RedTeam Pentesting works for many international customers. The project language for penetration tests is either English or German. Depending on specific customer demands, penetration tests can be performed locally at the client's premises, or via the Internet or other means of remote access. It is of course also possible to conduct a penetration test on a client's test system in RedTeam Pentesting's laboratory, for example in case of a product pentest.

What is an example of a large pen test engagement you've performed?
We have performed single engagements for clients covering more than 4000 IP addresses and thousands of web pages covering many different systems.

Can any harm be done to our productive systems during the test?
Unlike real attackers, Redteam Pentesting pays great attention to a customer's production systems, so as to not interrupt them. We always go to the greatest extent to leave all systems unharmed in a penetration test. Attacks where the risk of a system failure is especially high are only performed with the client's explicit consent. All in all, it is never possible to completely rule out that a production system crashes in a penetration test. To be able to get hold of someone as fast as possible in such a situation, emergency telephone numbers are exchanged prior to the test.
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